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|Year of publication:||2022|
|Document type:||Academic textbook - scripts|
|Faculty:||Faculty of Science|
|Licencia:||Creative Commons BY NC ND (Uveďte autora - Nepoužívajte komerčne - Nespracovávajte)|
Crystallography deals with discerning the arrangement and bonding of atoms in crystalline solids. Almost immediately after their discovery, X-rays began to be used to study the internal structure of substances. The first chapter of this textbook deals with the basic concepts of crystallography. At the beginning, crystalline solids are characterized. In the next section, the basic types of bonds and their characteristics are briefly presented. The main subject of this chapter is the interpretation of basic concepts such as symmetry operations, translational periodicity, grid, elementary cell. Spatial lattices and crystal systems are presented. At the end of this chapter, attention is paid to the description of individual types of defects in crystal structures. In the second chapter, the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom is presented. Individual quantum numbers and their meaning are given. Next, energy levels and allowed transitions within an atom with multiple electrons are described. The second chapter concludes with the characterization of the basic absorption and emission processes. The third chapter is devoted to the production of X-ray radiation and its properties. Sources of X-ray radiation and a description of their operation are presented. Interaction of X-ray radiation with matter, absorption and detection of X-ray radiation are the subject of the last part of this chapter.