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|Year of publication:||2010|
|Document type:||Academic textbook - scripts|
|Number of pages:||74|
|Faculty:||Faculty of Medicine|
|Clinic:||1st Department of Internal Medicine|
Renal failure or kidney failure (formerly called renal insufficiency or chronic renal insufficiency) describes a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter toxins and waste products from the blood. The two forms are acute (acute kidney injury) and chronic (chronic kidney disease); a number of other diseases or health problems may cause either form of renal failure to occur.
Biochemically, renal failure is typically detected by an elevated serum creatinine level. In the science of physiology, renal failure is described as a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. Problems frequently encountered in kidney malfunction include abnormal fluid levels in the body, deranged acid levels, abnormal levels of potassium, calcium, phosphate, hematuria (blood in the urine) and (in the longer term) anemia. Long-term kidney problems have significant repercussions on other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease.